viernes, 9 de abril de 2010

HOLLYWOOD WALK OF FAME

http://www.seeing-stars.com/immortalized/walkoffamestars.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollywood_Walk_of_Fame

domingo, 4 de abril de 2010

COCKNEY, WHAT IS IT?

WELCOME TO MY CAT!!!
(cat & mouse= house)


TIME TO GET DOWN TO 'BRASS TACKS' = FACTS

COCKNEY RHYMING MONEY SLANG

'GODIVAS' Lady Godiva= 'Fiver'

'MONKEYS' = 500 Pounds

'PONY' = 25 Pounds

'CARPET'= 30 Pounds


Un cockney, en el sentido menos estricto de la palabra, es un habitante del East End londinense. Esta área se compone de los distritos de Aldgate, Bethnal Green, Bow, Hackney, Limehouse, Mile End, Old Ford, Poplar, Shoreditch, Stepney, Wapping y Whitechapel. De acuerdo a una vieja tradición, la definición se limita a aquellos que nacen dentro de la zona donde se escuchan las campanas de Bow, es decir, las campanas de St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside.

El término se utilizó de esta manera desde el 1600, cuando Samuel Rowlands mencionaba a "un Cockney de las campanas de Bow" (a Bow-bell Cockney) en su obra satírica The Letting of Humours Blood in the Head-Vaine. John Minsheu (o Minshew) fue el primer lexicógrafo que definió la palabra con este sentido, en su obra Ductor in Linguas de 1617. Sin embargo, las etimologías que nos presentaba (de 'cock' y 'neigh' o del latín incoctus) eran meras suposiciones. Tiempo después, el Oxford English Dictionary explicó de manera definitiva el concepto y determina su origen en cock y egg, siendo su primer significado un huevo de forma rara (1362), luego una persona ignorante de modales campestres (1521) y más tarde el significado con que asociamos actualmente al concepto.

La iglesia de St. Mary-le-Bow fue destruida durante el Gran Incendio de Londres y fue reconstruida por Christopher Wren. Dado que las campanas fueron destruidas en 1941 durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial por los bombardeos de la Alemania nazi y no fueron reemplazadas sino hasta 1961, hubo un período en el que podemos afirmar no nacieron Cockneys 'verdaderos'.

Los hablantes Cockney tienen un dialecto y acento distintivos y con frecuencia emplean la jerga rimada Cockney.

Los siguientes son ejemplos de Cockneys en obras de ficción:

Jerga rimada Cockney

La jerga rimada Cockney (en inglés Cockney rhyming slang) es una forma de expresión muy habitual en el inglés británico, especialmente en el habla de las clases populares de Londres. Consiste en reemplazar una palabra de uso frecuente por otra que forma parte de una frase hecha que rima con ella. La sustitución tiene muchas veces un efecto humorístico por sus connotaciones, como en el ejemplo típico de utilizar trouble ("problemas") por wife ("esposa"), jugando con la rima de trouble and strife ("problemas y discusiones", una frase frecuente), pero también con la actitud convencionalmente asignada a las esposas.

Al depender del conocimiento estrecho de los hábitos lingüísticos locales, la jerga rimada es difícil de comprender para quienes no están familiarizados con ella. Si bien su origen es incierto, se supone que se desarrolló precisamente a este efecto, para evitar que los extraños comprendiesen la conversación. Algunas historias cuentan que se pudo originar en el mercado, para que los clientes no pudiesen entender lo que los tenderos decían, aunque también se cree que se originó en las prisiones, para que los carceleros no pudiesen entender a los presos.

La jerga rimada cockney ha sido llevada al cine en películas como Mary Poppins, en la que el actor estadounidense Dick Van Dyke hacía grandes esfuerzos por sonar como un auténtico cockney, o en la archipopular serie de televisión británica ‘Only Fools and Horses’. También hay un estilo de música llamado rockney, interpretado por grupos como Chas and Dave, que utilizan la jerga en sus canciones.

Ejemplos

Algunos ejemplos de la jerga cockney:

apples = apples and pears = stairs = escalera

jam = jam jar = car = coche

trouble = trouble and strife = wife = esposa

lee = Lee Marvin = starving = muriendo de hambre

bread = bread and honey = money = dinero

Ejemplo de frase en cockney:

Cockney: I ran out o´ bread so I took me jam back to me gaff

Inglés: I ran out of money so I took my car back to my house = Me quedé sin dinero, así que volví a casa con el coche.

Cockney Dictionary


What is Cockney rhyming slang?

Cockney rhyming slang is not a language but a collection of phrases used by Cockneys and other Londoners.

What's a Cockney?

A true Cockney is someone born within the sound of Bow Bells. (St Mary-le-Bow Church in Cheapside, London).

However the term Cockney is now loosely applied to many born outside this area as long as they have a "Cockney" accent or a Cockney heritage.

The Cockney accent is heard less often in Central London these days but is widely heard in the outer London boroughs, the London suburbs and all across South East England. It is common in Bedfordshire towns like Luton and Leighton Buzzard, and Essex towns such as Romford.

What's Rhyming Slang?

Rhyming Slang phrases are derived from taking an expression which rhymes with a word and then using that expression instead of the word. For example the word "look" rhymes with "butcher's hook". In many cases the rhyming word is omitted - so you won't find too many Londoners having a "bucher's hook" at this site, but you might find a few having a "butcher's".

The rhyming word is not always omitted so Cockney expressions can vary in their construction, and it is simply a matter of convention which version is used.

Some Cockney rhyming slang for parts of the body

In this list of example Cockney slang for parts of the body, you'll notice that some expressions omit the rhyming word but others do not.

English

Rhymes with

Cockney

Feet

Plates of meat

Plates

Teeth

Hampstead Heath

Hampsteads

Legs

Scotch eggs

Scotches

Eyes

Mince pies

Minces

Arms

Chalk Farms

Chalk Farms

Hair

Barnet Fair

Barnet

Head

Loaf of bread

Loaf

Face

Boat race

Boat race

Mouth

North and south

North and south

Who uses Cockney Rhyming Slang?

Cockney Rhyming Slang originated in the East End of London. Some slang expressions have escaped from London and are in popular use throughout the rest of Britain. For example "use your loaf" is an everyday phrase for the British, but not too many people realise it is Cockney Rhyming Slang ("loaf of bread: head"). There are many more examples of this unwitting use of Cockney Rhyming Slang.

Television has raised awareness of Cockney Rhyming Slang to far greater heights. Classic TV shows such as "Steptoe and Son", "Minder", "Porridge" and "Only Fools and Horses" have done much to spread the slang throughout Britain and to the rest of the world.

Is Cockney Rhyming Slang dead?

Not on your Nelly! Cockney Rhyming Slang may have had its highs and lows but today it is in use as never before.

In the last few years hundreds of brand new slang expressions have been invented - many betraying their modern roots, eg "Emma Freuds: hemorrhoids"; (Emma Freud is a TV and radio broadcaster) and "Ayrton Senna": tenner (10 pound note).

How is Cockney slang developing?

Modern Cockney slang that is being developed today tends to only rhyme words with the names of celebrities or famous people. There are very few new Cockney slang expressions that do not follow this trend. The only one that has gained much ground recently that bucks this trend is "Wind and Kite" meaning "Web site".

Cockney expressions are being exported from London all over the world. Here at cockneyrhymingslang.co.uk we get loads of enquiries from folks as far afield as the USA, Canada and Japan, all wanting to know the meaning of Cockney expressions.

We're continually adding new slang to the dictionary.







jueves, 1 de abril de 2010

EL 'CID', EL 'CANTAR DE ROLDÁN' Y EL 'BEOWULF'

Most of us have been fortunate enough to have heard about the Spanish hero 'el Cid Campeador'. Some have even had the good luck to be acquainted with the French one by means of 'La Chanson de Ronald,

El Cantar de Roldán (La Chanson de Roland, en francés) es un poema épico de varios cientos de versos, escrito a finales del siglo XI en francés antiguo, atribuido a un monje normando, Turoldo, cuyo nombre aparece en el último y enigmático verso: «Ci falt la geste que Turoldus declinet». Sin embargo, no queda claro el significado del verbo «declinar» en este verso: puede querer decir 'entonar', 'componer' o quizás 'transcribir', 'copiar'. Es el cantar de gesta más antiguo escrito en lengua romance en Europa. El texto del llamado Manuscrito de Oxford escrito en anglo-normando (de alrededor de 1170) consta de 4.002 versos decasílabos, distribuidos en 291 estrofas de desigual longitud llamadas tiradas -(en francés, laisses). .












Ocho escenas de
La Chanson de Roland

en un manuscrito iluminado


But do you know who the English equivalent would be ???
It is an undeserved pleasure for me to introduce you to 'Beowulf'. Next is some useful and helpful information concerning this Saxon hero.


Beowulf (pr. /beɪəwʊlf/ o también [be:o̯wʊɫf]) es un poema épico anglosajón anónimo que fue escrito en inglés antiguo en verso aliterativo. Cuenta con 3.182 versos, y por lo tanto contiene mucho más texto que cualquier obra similar en su mismo idioma, representando alrededor del 10% del corpus existente del verso anglosajón.

Tanto el autor como la fecha de composición del poema se desconocen, aunque las discusiones académicas suelen proponer fechas que van desde el siglo VIII al XII d. C. La obra se conserva en el códice Nowel o Cotton Vitellius A. xv y dada la fama del poema, a pesar de que convive con otras obras en el mismo manuscrito, este se ha dado en llamar «manuscrito Beowulf». Aunque el poema no tiene título en el manuscrito, se le ha llamado Beowulf desde principios del siglo XIX y se conserva en la Biblioteca Británica.











Beowulf , written in Old English sometime before the tenth century A.D., describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century.

A rich fabric of fact and fancy, Beowulf is the oldest surviving epic in British literature.

Beowulf exists in only one manuscript. This copy survived both the wholesale destruction of religious artefacts during the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII and a disastrous fire which destroyed the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571-1631).

The poem still bears the scars of the fire, visible at the upper left corner of the photograph. The Beowulf manuscript is now housed in the British Library, London.

Gewat ða neosian, syþðan niht becom,
hean huses, hu hit Hringdene
æfter beorþege gebun hæfdon.
Fand þa ðær inne æþelinga gedriht
swefan æfter symble; sorge ne cuðon,

120

wonsceaft wera. Wiht unhælo,
grim ond grædig, gearo sona wæs,
reoc ond reþe, ond on ræste genam
þritig þegna, þanon eft gewat
huðe hremig to ham faran,

125

mid þære wælfylle wica neosan.
ða wæs on uhtan mid ærdæge
Grendles guðcræft gumum undyrne;
þa wæs æfter wiste wop up ahafen,
micel morgensweg. Mære þeoden,

130

æþeling ærgod, unbliðe sæt,
þolode ðryðswyð, þegnsorge dreah,
syðþan hie þæs laðan last sceawedon,
wergan gastes; wæs þæt gewin to strang,
lað ond longsum. Næs hit lengra fyrst,

135

ac ymb ane niht eft gefremede
morðbeala mare ond no mearn fore,
fæhðe ond fyrene; wæs to fæst on þam.
þa wæs eaðfynde þe him elles hwær
gerumlicor ræste sohte,

140

bed æfter burum, ða him gebeacnod wæs,
gesægd soðlice sweotolan tacne
healðegnes hete; heold hyne syðþan
fyr ond fæstor se þæm feonde ætwand.
Swa rixode ond wið rihte wan,

145

ana wið eallum, oðþæt idel stod
husa selest. Wæs seo hwil micel;
XII wintra tid torn geþolode
wine Scyldinga, weana gehwelcne,
sidra sorga. Forðam secgum wearð,

150

ylda bearnum, undyrne cuð,
gyddum geomore, þætte Grendel wan
hwile wið Hroþgar, heteniðas wæg,
fyrene ond fæhðe fela missera,
singale sæce, sibbe ne wolde

155

wið manna hwone mægenes Deniga,
feorhbealo feorran, fea þingian,
ne þær nænig witena wenan þorfte
beorhtre bote to banan folmum,
ac se æglæca ehtende wæs,

160

deorc deaþscua, duguþe ond geogoþe,
seomade ond syrede, sinnihte heold
mistige moras; men ne cunnon
hwyder helrunan hwyrftum scriþað.
Swa fela fyrena feond mancynnes,

165

atol angengea, oft gefremede,
heardra hynða. Heorot eardode,
sincfage sel sweartum nihtum;
no he þone gifstol gretan moste,
maþðum for metode, ne his myne wisse.

170

þæt wæs wræc micel wine Scyldinga,
modes brecða. Monig oft gesæt
rice to rune; ræd eahtedon
hwæt swiðferhðum selest wære
wið færgryrum to gefremmanne.

175

Hwilum hie geheton æt hærgtrafum
wigweorþunga, wordum bædon
þæt him gastbona geoce gefremede
wið þeodþreaum. Swylc wæs þeaw hyra,
hæþenra hyht; helle gemundon

180

in modsefan, metod hie ne cuþon,
dæda demend, ne wiston hie drihten god,
ne hie huru heofena helm herian ne cuþon,
wuldres waldend. Wa bið þæm ðe sceal
þurh sliðne nið sawle bescufan

185

in fyres fæþm, frofre ne wenan,
wihte gewendan; wel bið þæm þe mot
æfter deaðdæge drihten secean
ond to fæder fæþmum freoðo wilnian.

Modern Text - Chapter II

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WENT he forth to find at fall of night
that haughty house, and heed wherever
the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone.
Found within it the atheling band
asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,
of human hardship. Unhallowed wight,
grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,
wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,
thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushed
fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,
laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.
Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,
the might of Grendel to men was known;
then after wassail was wail uplifted,
loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief,
atheling excellent, unblithe sat,
labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,
when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,
spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,
too long, too loathsome. Not late the respite;
with night returning, anew began
ruthless murder; he recked no whit,
firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.
They were easy to find who elsewhere sought
in room remote their rest at night,
bed in the bowers,
1 when that bale was shown,
was seen in sooth, with surest token, --
the hall-thane's
2 hate. Such held themselves
far and fast who the fiend outran!
Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill
one against all; until empty stood
that lordly building, and long it bode so.
Twelve years' tide the trouble he bore,
sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,
boundless cares. There came unhidden
tidings true to the tribes of men,
in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendel
harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,
what murder and massacre, many a year,
feud unfading, -- refused consent
to deal with any of Daneland's earls,
make pact of peace, or compound for gold:
still less did the wise men ween to get
great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.
But the evil one ambushed old and young
death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,
lured, or lurked in the livelong night
of misty moorlands: men may say not
where the haunts of these Hell-Runes
3 be.
Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,
lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,
harassings heavy. O'er Heorot he lorded,
gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;
and ne'er could the prince
4 approach his throne,
-- 'twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.
Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings'-friend,
heart-rending misery. Many nobles
sat assembled, and searched out counsel
how it were best for bold-hearted men
against harassing terror to try their hand.
Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes
altar-offerings, asked with words
5
that the slayer-of-souls would succor give them
for the pain of their people. Their practice this,
their heathen hope; 'twas Hell they thought of
in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not,
Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,
nor Heaven's-Helmet heeded they ever,
Wielder-of-Wonder. -- Woe for that man
who in harm and hatred hales his soul
to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor change
awaits he ever. But well for him
that after death-day may draw to his Lord,
and friendship find in the Father's arms!